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Octane rating - Wikipedia

An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation fuel. The higher the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating (igniting). In broad terms, fuels with a higher octane rating are used in high performance gasoline engines that require higher compression ratios. In contrast, fuels with lower octane numbers (but higher cetane numbers) are ideal for diesel engines, because diesel engines (also referred to as compression-ignition engines) do not compress the fuel, but rather compress only air and then inject fuel into the air which was heated by compression. Gasoline engines rely on ignition of air and fuel compressed together as a mixture, which is ignited at the end of the compression stroke using spark plugs. Therefore, high compressibility of the fuel matters mainly for gasoline engines. Use of gasoline with lower octane numbers may lead to the problem of engine knocking.[1]

Principles[edit]

The problem: pre-ignition and knocking[edit]

In a normal spark-ignition engine, the air-fuel mixture is heated due to being compressed and is then triggered to burn rapidly by the spark plug. During the combustion process, if the unburnt portion of the fuel in the combustion chamber is heated (or compressed) too much, pockets of unburnt fuel may self-ignite (detonate) before the main flame front reaches them. Shockwaves produced by detonation can cause much higher pressures than engine components are designed for, and can cause a "knocking" or "pinging" sound. Knocking can cause major engine damage if severe.

The most typically used engine management systems found in automobiles today have a knock sensor that monitors if knock is being produced by the fuel being used. In modern computer-controlled engines, the ignition timing will be automatically altered by the engine management system to reduce the knock to an acceptable level.

Isooctane as a reference standard[edit]

Octanes are a family of hydrocarbons that are typical components of gasoline. They are colorless liquids that boil around 125 °C (260 °F). One member of the octane family, isooctane, is used as a reference standard to benchmark the tendency of gasoline or LPG fuels to resist self-ignition.

The octane rating of gasoline is measured in a test engine and is defined by comparison with the mixture of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (iso-octane) and heptane that would have the same anti-knocking capacity as the fuel under test: the percentage, by volume, of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane in that mixture is the octane number of the fuel. For example, gasoline with the same knocking characteristics as a mixture of 90% iso-octane and 10% heptane would have an octane rating of 90.[2] A rating of 90 does not mean that the gasoline contains just iso-octane and heptane in these proportions but that it has the same detonation resistance properties (generally, gasoline sold for common use never consists solely of iso-octane and heptane; it is a mixture of many hydrocarbons and often other additives). Because some fuels are more knock-resistant than pure iso-octane, the definition has been extended to allow for octane numbers greater than 100.

Octane ratings are not indicators of the energy content of fuels. (See Effects below and Heat of combustion). They are only a measure of the fuel's tendency to burn in a controlled manner, rather than exploding in an uncontrolled manner.[3] Where the octane number is raised by blending in ethanol, energy content per volume is reduced. Ethanol BTUs can be compared with gasoline BTUs in heat of combustion tables.

It is possible for a fuel to have a Research Octane Number (RON) more than 100, because iso-octane is not the most knock-resistant substance available. Racing fuels, avgas, LPG and alcohol fuels such as methanol may have octane ratings of 110 or significantly higher. Typical "octane booster" gasoline additives include MTBE, ETBE, isooctane and toluene. Lead in the form of tetraethyllead was once a common additive, but its use for fuels for road vehicles has been progressively phased-out worldwide, beginning in the 1970s.[4]

Measurement methods[edit]

A US gas station pump offering five different (R+M)/2 octane ratings

Research Octane Number (RON)[edit]

The most common type of octane rating worldwide is the Research Octane Number (RON). RON is determined by running the fuel in a test engine with a variable compression ratio under controlled conditions, and comparing the results with those for mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane.

Motor Octane Number (MON)[edit]

Another type of octane rating, called Motor Octane Number (MON), is determined at 900 rpm engine speed instead of the 600 rpm for RON.[1] MON testing uses a similar test engine to that used in RON testing, but with a preheated fuel mixture, higher engine speed, and variable ignition timing to further stress the fuel's knock resistance. Depending on the composition of the fuel, the MON of a modern pump gasoline will be about 8 to 12 octane lower than the RON, but there is no direct link between RON and MON. Pump gasoline specifications typically require both a minimum RON and a minimum MON.[citation needed]

Anti-Knock Index (AKI) or (R+M)/2[edit]

In most countries, including Australia, New Zealand and all of those in Europe,[citation needed] the "headline" octane rating shown on the pump is the RON, but in Canada, the United States, Brazil, and some other countries, the headline number is the average of the RON and the MON, called the Anti-Knock Index (AKI), and often written on pumps as (R+M)/2. It may also sometimes be called the Posted Octane Number (PON).

Difference between RON, MON, and AKI[edit]

Because of the 8 to 12 octane number difference between RON and MON noted above, the AKI shown in Canada and the United States is 4 to 6 octane numbers lower than elsewhere in the world for the same fuel. This difference between RON and MON is known as the fuel's Sensitivity,[5] and is not typically published for those countries that use the Anti-Knock Index labelling system.

See the table in the following section for a comparison.

Observed Road Octane Number (RdON)[edit]

Another type of octane rating, called Observed Road Octane Number (RdON), is derived from testing gasolines in real world multi-cylinder engines, normally at wide open throttle. It was developed in the 1920s and is still reliable today. The original testing was done in cars on the road but as technology developed the testing was moved to chassis dynamometers with environmental controls to improve consistency.[6]

Octane Index[edit]

The evaluation of the octane number by the two laboratory methods requires a standard engine, and the test procedure can be both expensive and time-consuming. The standard engine required for the test may not always be available, especially in out-of-the-way places or in small or mobile laboratories. These and other considerations led to the search for a rapid method for the evaluation of the anti-knock quality of gasoline. Such methods include FTIR, near infrared on-line analyzers (ASTM D-2885) and others. Deriving an equation that can be used for calculating the octane quality would also serve the same purpose with added advantages. The term Octane Index is often used to refer to the calculated octane quality in contradistinction to the (measured) research or motor octane numbers. The octane index can be of great service in the blending of gasoline. Motor gasoline, as marketed, is usually a blend of several types of refinery grades that are derived from different processes such as straight-run gasoline, reformate, cracked gasoline etc. These different grades are considered as one group when blending to meet final product specifications. Most refiners produce and market more than one grade of motor gasoline, differing principally in their anti-knock quality. The ability to predict the octane quality of the blends prior to blending is essential, something for which the calculated octane index is specially suited.[7]

Aviation gasoline octane ratings[edit]

Aviation gasolines used in piston aircraft engines common in general aviation have a slightly different method of measuring the octane of the fuel. Similar to an AKI, it has two different ratings, although it is referred to only by the lower of the two. One is referred to as the "aviation lean" rating and is the same as the MON of the fuel up to 100.[8] The second is the "aviation rich" rating and corresponds to the octane rating of a test engine under forced induction operation common in high-performance and military piston aircraft. This utilizes a supercharger, and uses a significantly richer fuel/air ratio for improved detonation resistance.[5]

The most commonly used current fuel, 100LL, has an aviation lean rating of 100 octane, and an aviation rich rating of 130.[9]

Examples[edit]

The RON/MON values of n-heptane and iso-octane are exactly 0 and 100, respectively, by the definition of octane rating. The following table lists octane ratings for various other fuels.[10][11]

Fuel RON MON AKI or (R+M)/2
hexadecane < −30
n-octane −20 −17
n-heptane (RON and MON 0 by definition) 0 0 0
diesel fuel 15–25
2-methylheptane 23 23.8 23
n-hexane 25 26.0 26
1-pentene 34
2-methylhexane 44 46.4 45.2
3-methylhexane 55.0
1-heptene 60
n-pentane 62 61.9 62
requirement for a typical two-stroke outboard motor[12] 69 65 67
Pertamina "Premium" in Indonesia 88 78 83
Pertamina "Pertalite" in Indonesia 90
"Regular gasoline" in Japan (Japanese Industrial Standards) 90
n-butanol 92 71 83
Neopentane (dimethylpropane) 80.2
n-butane 94[13] 90.1 92
Isopentane (methylbutane) 90.3
"Regular Gasoline/Petroleum" in Australia, New Zealand and the US 91–92 82–83 87
Pertamina "Pertamax" in Indonesia 92 82 87
"Shell Super" in Indonesia, "Total Performance 92" in Indonesia 92
2,2-dimethylbutane 93.4
2,3-dimethylbutane 94.4
"YPF Super" in Argentina 95 84 90
Pertamina "Pertamax Plus" gasoline in Indonesia (discontinued), "Super/Premium" in New Zealand and Australia 95 85 90
"Aral Super 95" in Germany, "Aral Super 95 E10" (10% Ethanol) in Germany 95 85 90
"Shell V-Power" in Indonesia, "Total Performance 95" in Indonesia, "Shell FuelSave " in Malaysia 95
"EuroSuper" or "EuroPremium" or "Regular unleaded" in Europe, "SP95" in France, "Super 95" in Belgium 95 85–86 90–91
"Premium" or "Super unleaded" gasoline in US (10% ethanol blend) 97 87-88 92-93
"Shell V-Power 97" in Malaysia 97
"IES 98 Plus" in Italy, "Aral SuperPlus 98" in Germany, Pertamina "Pertamax Turbo" in Indonesia 98
"YPF Infinia" in Argentina 98 87 93
"Corriente (Regular)" in Colombia 91.5[14] 70 81[15]
"Extra (Super/Plus)" in Colombia 95[16] 79 87[17]
"SuperPlus" in Germany 98 88 93
"Shell V-Power 98", "Caltex Platinum 98 with Techron", "Esso Mobil Synergy 8000" and "SPC LEVO 98" in Singapore, "BP Ultimate 98/Mobil Synergy 8000" in New Zealand, "SP98" in France, "Super 98" in Belgium, Great Britain, Slovenia and Spain 98 89–90 93–94
"Shell V-Power Nitro+ 99" "Tesco Momentum 99" In the United Kingdom 99 87 93
Pertamina "Pertamina Racing Fuel" (bioethanol blend) in Indonesia 100 86 93
"Premium" gasoline in Japan (Japanese Industrial Standards), "IP Plus 100" in Italy, "Tamoil WR 100" in Italy, "Shell V-Power Racing" in Australia - discontinued July 2008 [18] 100
"Shell V-Power" in Italy and Germany 100 88 94
"Eni(or Agip) Blu Super +(or Tech)" in Italy 100 87 94
"isooctane" (RON and MON 100 by definition) 100 100 100
" Petron Blaze 100 Euro 4M " in Philippines 100
"San Marco Petroli F-101" in Italy (northern Italy only, just a few gas stations) 101
benzene 101
2,5-Dimethylfuran 101.3[19] 88.1[19] 94.7[19]
Petro-Canada "Ultra 94" in Canada [20] 101.5 88 94
Aral Ultimate 102 in Germany 102 88 95
ExxonMobil Avgas 100[21] 99.5 (min)
Petrobras Podium in Brazil 102 88 95
E85 gasoline 102-105 85-87 94-96[22]
i-butane 102[13] 97.6 100
"BP Ultimate 102 - now discontinued"[23] 102 93–94 97–98
t-butanol 103 91 97
2,3,3-trimethylpentane 106.1[24] 99.4[24] 103
ethane 108
ethanol 108.6[25] 89.7[25] 99.15
methanol 108.7[25] 88.6[25] 98.65
2,2,3-trimethylpentane 109.6[24] 99.9[24] 105
propane 112 97 105
2,2,3-trimethylbutane 112.1[24] 101.3[24] 106
xylene 118 115 116.5
isopropanol 118 98 108
1-propanol 118[26] 98 108[26]
toluene 121 107 114
VP C16 Race Fuel 117 118 117.5
methane 120 120 120
hydrogen > 130

Effects[edit]

Higher octane ratings correlate to higher activation energies: the amount of applied energy required to initiate combustion. Since higher octane fuels have higher activation energy requirements, it is less likely that a given compression will cause uncontrolled ignition, otherwise known as autoignition or detonation.

The compression ratio is directly related to power and to thermodynamic efficiency of an internal combustion engine (see Otto-cycle). Engines with higher compression ratios develop more area under the Otto-Cycle curve, thus they extract more energy from a given quantity of fuel.

During the compression stroke of an internal combustion engine, as the air-fuel mix is compressed its temperature rises.

A fuel with a higher octane rating is less prone to auto-ignition and can withstand a greater rise in temperature during the compression stroke of an internal combustion engine without auto-igniting, thus allowing more power to be extracted from the Otto-Cycle.

If during the compression stroke the air-fuel mix reaches a temperature greater than the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel, the fuel self or auto-ignites. When auto-ignition occurs (before the piston reaches the top of its travel) the up-rising piston is then attempting to squeeze the rapidly heating fuel charge. This will usually destroy an engine quickly if allowed to continue.

There are two types of induction systems on internal combustion engines: naturally aspirated engine (air is sucked in using the engine's pistons), or forced induction engines (see supercharged or turbocharged engines).

In the case of the normally aspirated engine, at the start of the compression stroke the cylinder air / fuel volume is very high, this translates into a low starting pressure. As the piston travels upward, abnormally high cylinder pressures may result in the mixture auto-igniting or detonating, which is why conservative compression ratios are used in consumer vehicles. In a forced induction engine where at the start of the compression stroke the cylinder pressure is already raised (having a greater volume of air/fuel) Exp. 202kPa (29.4Psi) the starting pressure or air / fuel volume would be 2 times that of the normally aspirated engine. This would translate into an effective compression ratio of 20:1 vs. 10:1 for the normally aspirated. This is why many forced induction engines have compression ratios in the 8:1 range.

Many high-performance engines are designed to operate with a high maximum compression, and thus demand fuels of higher octane. A common misconception is that power output or fuel efficiency can be improved by burning fuel of higher octane than that specified by the engine manufacturer. The power output of an engine depends in part on the energy density of the fuel being burnt. Fuels of different octane ratings may have similar densities, but because switching to a higher octane fuel does not add more hydrocarbon content or oxygen, the engine cannot develop more power.

However, burning fuel with a lower octane rating than that for which the engine is designed often results in a reduction of power output and efficiency. Many modern engines are equipped with a knock sensor (a small piezoelectric microphone), which sends a signal to the engine control unit, which in turn retards the ignition timing when detonation is detected. Retarding the ignition timing reduces the tendency of the fuel-air mixture to detonate, but also reduces power output and fuel efficiency. Because of this, under conditions of high load and high temperature, a given engine may have a more consistent power output with a higher octane fuel, as such fuels are less prone to detonation. Some modern high performance engines are actually optimized for higher than pump premium (93 AKI in the US). The 2001 - 2007 BMW M3 with the S54 engine is one such car. Car and Driver magazine tested a car using a dynamometer, and found that the power output increased as the AKI was increased up to approximately 96 AKI.

Most fuel filling stations have two storage tanks (even those offering 3 or 4 octane levels): those motorists who purchase intermediate grade fuels are given a mixture of higher and lower octane fuels. "Premium" grade is fuel of higher octane, and the minimum grade sold is fuel of lower octane. Purchasing 91 octane fuel (where offered) simply means that more fuel of higher octane is blended with commensurately less fuel of lower octane, than when purchasing a lower grade. The detergents and other additives in the fuel are often, but not always, identical.

The octane rating was developed by chemist Russell Marker at the Ethyl Corporation in 1926.[27] The selection of n-heptane as the zero point of the scale was due to its availability in high purity. Other isomers of heptane produced from crude oil have greatly different ratings.

Regional variations[edit]

The selection of octane ratings available at the pump can vary greatly from region to region.

  • Australia: "regular" unleaded fuel is 91 RON, "premium" unleaded with 95 RON is widely available, and 98 RON fuel is also reasonably common. Shell used to sell 100 RON fuel (5% ethanol content) from a small number of service stations, most of which are located in major cities (stopped in August 2008). United Petroleum used to sell 100 RON unleaded fuel (10% ethanol content) at a small number of its service stations (originally only two, but then expanded to 67 outlets nationwide) (stopped in September 2014).[28][29] All fuel in Australia is unleaded except for some aviation fuels. E85 unleaded fuel is also available at several United service stations across the country.[30] Recently E10 fuel has become quite common[citation needed], and is available at almost every major fuel station. The Australian government makes stations advertise E10 as 94 RON.[citation needed]
  • Bahrain: 91 and 95 (RON), standard in all gasoline stations in the country and advertised as (Jayyid) for Regular or 91 and (Mumtaz) for Premium or 95 and 98 (RON) as super.
  • Bangladesh: Two types of fuel are available at petrol stations in Bangladesh. Motor Gasoline Regular (marketed as "Petrol") which has RON 80 rating, and Motor Gasoline Premium (marketed as "Octane") which has RON 95 rating.[31] Petrol stations in Bangladesh are privatised, but the prices are regulated by the authorities and have a fixed price at BDT 86.00 (USD 1.04) and BDT 89.00 (USD 1.07) (as of 1 March, 2018) per litre respectively.[32]
  • China: 92 and 95 (RON) (previously 93 and 97[33]) are commonly offered. In limited areas higher rating such as 98 RON is available. In some rural areas it can be difficult to find fuel with over 92 RON.
  • Chile: 93, 95 and 97 RON are standard at almost all gas stations thorough Chile. The three types are unleaded.
  • Colombia: "Ecopetrol", Colombia's monopoly of refining and distribution of gasoline establishes a minimum AKI of 81 octanes for "Corriente" gasoline [15] and minimum AKI of 87 octanes for "Extra" gasoline.[17] (91.5 RON corriente,[14] and 91 RON for extra[16])
  • Costa Rica: RECOPE, Costa Rica's distribution monopoly, establishes the following ratings: Plus 91 (at least 91 RON) and Super (at least 95 RON).[34]
  • Croatia: All fuel stations offer unleaded "Eurosuper BS" (abbreviation "BS" meaning "no sulfur content") 95 RON fuel, many also offer "Eurosuper Plus BS" 98 RON.[35][36] Some companies offer 100 RON fuel instead of 98.[37]
  • Cyprus: All fuel stations offer unleaded 95 and 98 RON and a few offer 100 RON as well.
  • Denmark: 95 RON is a common choice, with 92 and 95 being widely available. However several fuel stations are phasing out 92 RON. By law, it is decided that all gasoline companies from July 2010 should use a mix containing 5% bioethanol in the gasoline.
  • Ecuador: "Extra" with 87 and "Super" with 92 (RON) are available in all fuel stations. "Extra" is the most commonly used. All fuels are unleaded.[38]
  • Egypt: Egyptian Fuel Stations had 90 RON until July 2014 when the Government found no remaining use for it, leaving only 92 RON and 95 RON. 80 RON is found in a very limited amount of fuel stations as they are used only for extremely old cars that cannot cope with high octane fuel. 95 RON in used by limit due to its high price (more than twice the price of 92 RON).[39]
  • Estonia: 95 RON and 98 RON are widely available.
  • Finland: 95 and 98 (RON), advertised as such, at almost all gas stations. Most cars run on 95, but 98 is available for vehicles that need higher octane fuel, or older models containing parts easily damaged by high ethanol content. Shell offers V-Power, advertised as "over 99 octane", instead of 98. In the beginning of 2011 95 RON was replaced by 95E10 containing 10% ethanol, and 98 RON by 98E5, containing 5% ethanol. ST1 also offers RE85 on some stations, which is 85% ethanol made from biodegradable waste (from which the advertised name "ReFuel" comes). RE85 is only suitable for flexifuel cars that can run on high-percentage ethanol.[40]
  • Germany: "Super E10" 95 RON and "Super Plus E5" 98 RON are available practically everywhere. Big suppliers such as Shell or Aral offer 100 RON gasoline (Shell V-Power, Aral Ultimate) at almost every fuel station. "Normal" 91 RON is only rarely offered because lower production amounts make it more expensive than "Super" 95 RON. Due to a new European Union law, gas stations are being required to offer a minimum rate of the new mixture of "Super" 95 RON with up to 10% Ethanol branded as "Super E10".[citation needed] Producers are discontinuing "Super E5" 95 RON with <5% Ethanol[citation needed] so cars that are unable to use E10 must use 98 RON gasoline automotive fuel instead. E85 is also available is most areas.[41]
  • Greece (Hellas): 95 RON (standard unleaded), 97+ & 100 RON unleaded offered by some companies (e.g. EKO, Shell, BP). Also available Super LRP 96 RON for older (non-catalytic) vehicles.
  • Hong Kong: only 98 RON is available in the market. There have been calls to re-introduce 95 RON, but the calls have been rejected by all automotive fuel station chains, citing that 95 RON was phased out because of market forces.
  • India: India's ordinary and premium gasolines are of 91 RON. The premium gasolines are generally ordinary fuels with additives, that do not really change the octane value. Two variants, "Speed 93" and "Speed 97", were launched, with RON values of 93 and 97. India's economy-class vehicles usually have compression ratios under 10:1, thus enabling them to use lower-octane gasoline without engine knocking.
  • Indonesia: Indonesia's "Premium" gasoline rated at 88 RON and being subsidized it cost only about US$0.65/liter. Other options are newly introduced "Pertalite" rated at 90 RON (the price is not subsidized), "Pertamax" rated at 92 RON and the "Pertamax Plus" rated at 95 RON. "Pertamax Racing Fuel", a bioethanol flexfuel rated at RON 100 (sold in gallon can container only). Starting from August 2016 Pertamina has started selling a new fuel variant rated at 98 RON marketed by Pertamax Turbo. This fuel is said to replace Pertamax Plus which is still currently sold in almost every fuel station nationwide, making Pertamina to probably the only energy company in the world to currently provide six octane variants of gasoline, 88, 90, 92, 95, 98, and 100 RON. Total and Shell stations only sell RON 92 and 95 gasoline. Petronas has decided to shut down its retail business in Indonesia in 2012, after years of sluggish sales.
  • Iran: 92 RON (marketed as regular) and 95 RON (marketed as Super) are widely available in gas stations.
  • Ireland: 95 RON "unleaded" is the only gasoline type available through stations, although E5 (99 RON) is becoming more commonplace.
  • Italy: 95 RON is the only compulsory gasoline offered (verde, "green"), only a few fuel stations (Agip, IP, IES, OMV) offer 98 RON as the premium type, many Shell and Tamoil stations close to the cities offer also V-Power Gasoline rated at 100 RON. Recently Agip introduced "Blu Super+", a 100 RON gasoline.
  • Israel: 95 RON & 98 RON are normally available at most automotive fuel stations. 96 RON is also available at a large number of gas stations but 95 RON is more preferred because it's cheaper and performance differences aren't very wide and noticeable. "Regular" fuel is 95 RON. All variants are unleaded.
  • Japan: Since 1986, "regular" is >=89 RON, and "high octane" is >=96 RON, lead free. Those values are defined in standard JIS K 2202. Sometimes "high octane" is sold under different names, such as "F-1".
  • Latvia: 95 RON and 98 RON widely available.
  • Lebanon: 95 RON and 98 RON are widely available.
  • Lithuania: 95 RON and 98 RON widely available. In some gas stations E85 (bioethanol) gasoline, 98E15 (15% of ethanol), 98E25 (25% of ethanol) are available.
  • Malaysia: 95 RON, 97 RON and 100 RON. "Regular" unleaded fuel is 95 RON; "Premium" fuel is rated at 97 RON (Shell's V-Power Racing is rated 97 RON). Petron sells 100 RON in selected outlets.[42]
  • México: Pemex Magna (87 AKI) is sold as a "regular" fuel and is available at every station. And Pemex Premium (92 AKI) is sold at almost all gas stations. Both variants are unleaded.
  • Mongolia: 92 RON and 95 RON (advertised as A92 and A95 respectively) are available at nearly all stations while slightly fewer stations offer 80 RON (advertised as A80). 98 RON (advertised as A98) is available in select few stations.
  • Montenegro: 95 RON is sold as a "regular" fuel. As a "premium" fuel, 98 RON is sold. Both variants are unleaded.
  • Netherlands: 95 RON "Euro" is sold at every station, whereas 98 RON "Super Plus" is being phased out in favor of "premium" fuels, which are all 95 RON fuels with extra additives. Shell V-Power is a 97 RON (labelled as 95 due to the legalities of only using 95 or 98 labelling), some independent tests have shown that one year after introduction[when?] it was downgraded to 95 RON,[citation needed] whereas in neighboring Germany Shell V-Power consists of the regular 100 RON fuel.
  • New Zealand: 91 RON "Regular" and 95 RON "Premium" are both widely available. 98 RON is available instead of 95 RON at some (BP, Mobil, Gull) service stations in larger urban areas.
  • Norway: 95 RON are widely available, but 98 RON is also available at Shell; it is 10-20% more expensive as 95 RON fuel. Statoil has discontinued production and sale due to low demand.[43]
  • Philippines: A brand of Petron, Petron Blaze is rated at 100 RON (the only brand of gasoline in the Philippines without an ethanol blend). Other "super premium" brands like Petron XCS, Caltex Gold, Shell V-Power are rated at 95-97 RON, while Petron Xtra Unleaded, Caltex Silver, and Shell Super Unleaded are rated at 93 RON.
  • Poland: Eurosuper 95 (RON 95) is sold in every gas station. Super Plus 98 (RON 98) is available in most stations, sometimes under brand (Orlen - Verva, BP - Ultimate, Shell - V-Power) and usually containing additives. Shell offers V-Power Racing fuel which is rated RON 100.
  • Portugal: 95 RON "Euro" is sold in every station and 98 RON "Super" being offered in almost every station.
  • Russia and CIS countries: 80 RON (76 MON) is the minimum available, the standard is 92 RON and 95 RON. 98 RON is available on most stations but it's usually quite expensive compared to the lower octane rating fuels.
  • Saudi Arabia: Two types of fuel are available at all petrol stations in Saudi Arabia. "Premium 91" (RON 91) where the pumps and liquid (look fuel dyes) are coloured green, and "Super Premium 95" (RON 95) where the pumps and liquid are coloured red. While petrol stations in Saudi Arabia are privatised, the prices are regulated by the authorities and have a fixed at SR 1.37 (USD 0.37) and SR 2.04 (USD 0.54) (as of 1 January, 2018) per litre respectively; and is currently being increased at an annual rate to bring it up to the worldwide average by 2020. Prior to 2006, only Super Premium RON 95 was available and the pumps weren't coloured in any specific order. The public didn't know what Octane rating was, therefore big educating campaigns were spread, telling the people to use the "red petrol" only for high end cars, and save money on using the "green petrol" for regular cars and trucks.
  • Singapore: All four providers, Caltex, ExxonMobil, SPC and Shell have 3 grades of gasoline. Typically, these are 92, 95, and 98 RON. However, since 2009, Shell has removed 92 RON.
  • South Africa: "regular" unleaded fuel is 95 RON in coastal areas. Inland (higher elevation) "regular" unleaded fuel is 93 RON; once again most fuel stations optionally offer 95 RON.
  • South Korea: "regular" unleaded fuel is 91~94 RON, "premium" is 95+ RON nationally. However, not all gas stations carry "premium."
  • Spain: 95 RON "Euro" is sold in every station with 98 RON "Super" being offered in most stations. Many stations around cities and highways offer other high-octane "premium" brands.
  • Sri Lanka: In Ceypetco filling stations, 92 RON is the regular automotive fuel and 95 RON is called 'Super Petrol',[44] which comes at a premium price. In LIOC filling stations, 90 RON remains as regular automotive fuel and 92 RON is available as 'Premium Petrol'. The cost of premium gasoline is lower than the cost of super gasoline. (Sri Lanka switched their regular gasoline from 90 RON to 92 RON on January 1, 2014)
  • Sweden: 95 RON, 98 RON and E85 are widely available.
  • Taiwan: 92 RON, 95 RON and 98 RON are widely available at gas stations in Taiwan.
  • Thailand: 91 RON and 95 RON are widely available. 91 RON automotive fuel withdrawn on January 1, 2013 to increase uptake of gasohol fuels.
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 92 RON (Super) and 95 RON (Premium) are widely available.
  • Turkey: 95 RON and 95+ RON widely available in gas stations. 91 RON (Regular) has been dropped in 2006. 98 and 100 RON (Shell V-Power Racing) has been dropped in late 2009. The Gas which has been advertised 97 RON has been dropped in 2014 and renamed 95+.
  • Ukraine: the standard gasoline is 95 RON, but 92 RON gasoline is also widely available and popular as a less expensive replacement for 95 RON gasoline. 80 RON gasoline is available for old cars and motorcycles.
  • United Kingdom: 'regular' gasoline has an octane rating of 95 RON, with 97 RON fuel being widely available as the Super Unleaded. Tesco and Shell both offer 99 RON fuel. In April 2006, BP started a public trial of the super-high octane gasoline BP Ultimate Unleaded 102, which as the name suggests, has an octane rating of 102 RON.[45] Although BP Ultimate Unleaded (with an octane rating of 97 RON) and BP Ultimate Diesel are both widely available throughout the UK, BP Ultimate Unleaded 102 was available throughout the UK in only 10 filling stations, and was priced at about two and half times more than their 97 RON fuel. In March 2010, BP stopped sales of Ultimate Unleaded 102, citing the closure of their specialty fuels manufacturing facility.[23] Shell V-Power is also available, but in a 99 RON octane rating, and Tesco fuel stations also supply the Greenergy produced 99 RON "Momentum99".
  • United States: in the US octane rating is displayed in AKI. In most areas, the standard grades are 87, 89-90 and 91-94 AKI.[46] In the Rocky Mountain (high elevation) states, 85 AKI (90 RON) is the minimum octane, and 91 AKI (95 RON) is the maximum octane available in fuel.[47] The reason for this is that in higher-elevation areas, a typical naturally aspirated engine draws in less air mass per cycle because of the reduced density of the atmosphere. This directly translates to less fuel and reduced absolute compression in the cylinder, therefore deterring knock. It is safe to fill a carbureted car that normally takes 87 AKI fuel at sea level with 85 AKI fuel in the mountains, but at sea level the fuel may cause damage to the engine. However, since virtually all cars produced since the mid-1980s have fuel injection, 85 AKI fuel is not recommended for modern automobiles and may cause damage to the engine and decreased performance.[48] Another disadvantage to this strategy is that most turbocharged vehicles are unable to produce full power, even when using the "premium" 91 AKI fuel. In some east coast states, up to 94 AKI (98 RON) is available.[49] As of January, 2011, over 40 states and a total of over 2500 stations offer ethanol-based E-85 fuel with 94-96 AKI.[50] Often, filling stations near US racing tracks will offer higher octane levels such as 100 AKI .[citation needed]
  • Venezuela: 91 RON and 95 RON gasoline is available nationwide, in all PDV gas stations. 95 RON gasoline is the most widely used in the country, although most cars in Venezuela would work with 91 RON gasoline. This is because gasoline prices are heavily subsidized by the government (0.$083 per gallon 95 RON, vs 0.$061 per gallon 91 RON). All gasoline in Venezuela is unleaded.
  • Vietnam: 92 is in every gas station and 95 is in the urban area. They start selling A92-E5 gasoline (A92 with 5 percent of Ethanol) at 2017. On January 1, 2018, Vietnamese gorvernment forced every gas station stop selling 92 and sell 95 + A92-E5 instead.
  • Zimbabwe: 93 octane available with no other grades of fuels available, E10 which is an ethanol blend of fuel at 10% ethanol is available the octane rating however is still to be tested and confirmed but it is assumed that its around 95 Octane. E85 available from 3 outlets with an octane rating AKI index of between 102-105 depending on the base gasoline the ethanol is blended with.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Werner Dabelstein, Arno Reglitzky, Andrea Schütze and Klaus Reders "Automotive Fuels" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2007, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.doi:10.1002/14356007.a16_719.pub2
  2. ^ Kemp, Kenneth W.; Brown, Theodore; Nelson, John D. (2003). Chemistry: the central science. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall. p. 992. ISBN 0-13-066997-0. 
  3. ^ Harwood, Richard; Coates, Christopher; Talbot, Christopher (2015-07-31). Chemistry for the IB Diploma Second Edition. Hodder Education. ISBN 9781471829222. 
  4. ^ "Leaded Gas Phaseout". U.S. EPA, Region 10. June 1995. Archived from the original on 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2012-06-15. 
  5. ^ a b "Octane determination in Piston Engines". vintagebonanza.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. 
  6. ^ "Octane Explanation". runyard.org. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. 
  7. ^ H. Al-Haj Ibrahim and M. Al-Kassmi, Determination of calculated octane index for motor gasoline, The Arabian Journal for science and engineering, vol. 25, No. 2B, Oct. 2000, pp. 179-186.
  8. ^ "Replacing Leaded Aviation Gasoline" (PDF). Txideafarm.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-01-06. 
  9. ^ "Standard Specification for Aviation Gasolines" (PDF). Aviation-fuel.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-04-15. Retrieved 2017-01-06. 
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-25. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  11. ^ Balaban, Alexandru T. (1983). "Topological Indices based on Topological Distances in Molecular Graphs" (PDF). Pure and Applied Chemistry. IUPAC. 55 (2): 199–206. doi:10.1351/pac198855020199. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-08-30. 
  12. ^ Johnson Operation and Maintenance Manual, 1999
  13. ^ a b Henig, Y. "SciTech Connect: Autoignition of n-butane/isobutane blends in a knock research engine". osti.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. 
  14. ^ a b "Ecopetrol - Energía para el Futuro". ecopetrol.com.co. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19. 
  15. ^ a b "Ecopetrol - Energía para el Futuro". ecopetrol.com.co. 
  16. ^ a b "Ecopetrol - Energía para el Futuro". ecopetrol.com.co. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19. 
  17. ^ a b "Ecopetrol - Energía para el Futuro". ecopetrol.com.co. 
  18. ^ Shell phases out V-Power Racing fuel (100 RON) Archived 2011-02-22 at the Wayback Machine. – MRT
  19. ^ a b c Daniel, Ritchie (2012). "'Combustion performance of 2,5-dimethylfuran blends using dual-injection compared to direct-injection in an SI engine'". Applied Energy. 98: 59–68. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.02.073. 
  20. ^ "FAQs – Questions, Answers, Gasoline Products – Petro-Canada". Retail.petro-canada.ca. Archived from the original on 2015-11-22. Retrieved 2017-01-06. 
  21. ^ "ExxonMobil Avgas". Exxonmobil.com. Retrieved 2017-01-06. 
  22. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-02. Retrieved 2011-08-27. 
  23. ^ a b "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-07-24. Retrieved 2010-12-21. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f A. T. Balaban, L. B. Kier, and N. Josh, MATCH (Commun. Math. Chem.) 28 (1992) 13–27.
  25. ^ a b c d Eyidogan, Muharrem (2010). "'Impact of alcohol–gasoline fuel blends on the performance and combustion characteristics of an SI engine'". Fuel. 89 (10): 2713–2720. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2010.01.032. 
  26. ^ a b "Biofuels - Types of Biofuels - Bioalcohols". biofuel.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2014-04-16. 
  27. ^ "Marker Degradation: Creation of the Mexican Steroid Hormone Industry" (PDF). American Chemical Society. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 2017-11-04. 
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-08-30. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-09-02. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  30. ^ "Ethanol 85". Unitedpetroleum.com.au. Archived from the original on 2016-12-23. Retrieved 2017-01-06. 
  31. ^ "Product Specification - Petroleum". Padma Oil Company Limited. Retrieved 2018-03-06. 
  32. ^ "Petroleum Local Price". www.bpc.gov.bd. Retrieved 2018-03-06. 
  33. ^ "China V gasoline and diesel fuel quality standards" (PDF). International Council on Clean Transportation. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  34. ^ "Manual de Productis" (PDF). Recope.go.cr. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-01-07. Retrieved 2017-01-06. 
  35. ^ "INA d.d." ina.hr. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. 
  36. ^ "Lukoil Hrvatska". lukoil.hr. Archived from the original on 2014-02-18. 
  37. ^ "Crodux derivati". crodux-derivati.hr. Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. 
  38. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-06-21. 
  39. ^ "الحكومة المصرية ترفع أسعار الوقود بنسبة تقترب من الضعف". BBC Arabic. Archived from the original on 2014-12-01. 
  40. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2012-04-13. 
  41. ^ Jens Bergner; Roland Julian Hofmann. "the biofuel community". Ethanol-tanken.com. Archived from the original on 2016-10-21. Retrieved 2017-01-06. 
  42. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-05. Retrieved 2011-09-27. 
  43. ^ "Tømmer tanken for 98 oktan". Altaposten.no. 2014-04-15. Archived from the original on 2017-04-07. Retrieved 2017-01-06. 
  44. ^ "Ceylon Petroleum Corporation". ceypetco.gov.lk. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31. 
  45. ^ "BP" (PDF). bp.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-14. 
  46. ^ "What's With All the Buttons? Types and Grades of Fuel". Driving-tests.org. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2017-01-06. 
  47. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-01-10. Retrieved 2013-06-04. 
  48. ^ Mark Phelan (2013-05-29). "Vacationers, beware: Bad gas can damage your car". Usatoday.com. Archived from the original on 2016-11-20. Retrieved 2017-01-06. 
  49. ^ Sunoco, Inc. "GoSunoco - Partner With Sunoco". sunocoinc.com. Archived from the original on 2007-04-30. 
  50. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-07. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 

External links[edit]

Octane ratings of some hydrocarbons

Information in general

en.wikipedia.org

Yumurta Akı Maskesi - Cilt Bakımı

Yumurta akı maskesi uygulaması ve yapılışı son derece basit olan maskelerden biridir. Yüzyıllardır cilt bakımı ve cilt sorunları için kullanılan maskelerden biridir. Yumurta akı maskesi evde kolay ve pratik şekilde yapılabilen maskeler arasında bulunmaktadır. Cilde sayısız faydası bulunan yumurta maskesi ile yumurta akı ile kırışıklık maskesi, yumurta akı ile gözenek sıkılaştırma, yumurta akı ile sivilce maskesi ve yumurta akı ile saç maskesi yapmanız mümkün. Bu yazımızda sizlere yumurtanın beyaz yani ak olan kısmı ile etkili yumurta akı maskesi tariflerinden ayrıntılı olarak bahsetmeye çalışacağım.

Yumurta akı yüksek oranda protein deposudur. Pek çok cilt bakım maskesinde kullanılan yumurta akı ile cilt bakımı ve saç bakımı yapıldığını neredeyse bilmeyen yoktur. Yumurta akı maskesi yada diğer adı ile yumurta beyazı maskesi sivilcelere, siyah noktalara ve kırışıklıklara son verirken pürüzsüz, canlı ve sıkı bir cilde sahip olursunuz. Yumurta akı yüksek protein içeriği sayesinde cilt hücrelerini uyarır ve cildin kendini yenileme sürecini hızlandırır, bu sayede kırışıklıkların görünümü kısa sürede yok olur.

Yumurta Akı Maskesi Nasıl Yapılır

Yumurta akı ile yüz maskesi nasıl yapılır, yumurta akı maskesi tarifleri ile sizlere çok etkili olan maske tariflerini vermeye çalışacağım dilediğiniz maskeyi ihtiyacınız doğrultusunda rahatlıkla yüzünüze uygulayabilirsiniz. Yumurta akı maskesi yapanlar ve memnun kalanların yumurta akı maskeleri;

Yumurta Akı Maskesi Sivilce 

Yumurta akı maskesinin sivilceleri yok etme konusunda büyük başarısı vardır. Yumurta akının içerisinde bulunan “Albumin” adlı protein cildin yağ dengesini sağlarken sivilce oluşumunu önler.

Malzemeler

  • 1 adet organik köy yumurtası
  • 1 çay kaşığı limon suyu
  • 1 çay kaşığı bal

Hazırlanışı ve Uygulanışı

Yukarıda saydığımız bütün malzemeleri bir cam kese içerisinde karıştın. Temizlenmiş cildinize ve boyun bölgesine sürün. Göz ve dudak çevresine sürmemeye özen gösterin. Ortalama 15 dakika kadar cildinizde kurumasını bekleyin. Özellikle sivilce olan bölgeye uyguladığınızdan emin olur. Bu maske cildi yağlardan arındıracağı için kuruluk hissi yaratabilir. Eğer cildiniz kurursa nemlendirici krem sürebilirsiniz.

Yumurta Akı Maskesi Siyah Nokta

Siyah noktalar açık olan gözeneklerde yağın ve kirin birikmesi ile oluşur. Bölgedeki kir ve yağ zamanla birikerek sivilceye neden olur. Yumurta akı içeriğinde bulunan 50 fazla protein ile gözenekleri sıkılaştıran, kırışıklıkları yok eden ve siyah noktaları temizleyen etkisi vardır.

Malzemeler

  • 1 Adet yumurta akı
  • 1 yemek kaşığı toz şeker

Hazırlanışı ve Uygulanışı

Bir kahve fincanı içerisine yumurta akını ve şekeri ekleyerek iyice karıştırın. Hazırladığınız karışımı siyah noktaların olduğu bölgeye baskı yapar sürün. Ortalama 15 dakika kadar bekledikten sonra ılık su ile durulayın. Haftada 2 defa 3 gün araya ile yaparak kısa sürede siyah noktalarda kurtulabilirsiniz.

Yumurta Akı Cilt Beyazlatma

Genelde sivilce izleri ve güneş lekeleri olan cilt tiplerinde cilt renk tonu farklılıkları ve kahverengi lekeler vardır. Sizlere vereceğim bu maskeyi düzenli şekilde uygularsanız 5-6 uygulamadan sonra cildinizin beyazladığını ve renk tonunun açıldığı görebilirsiniz.

Malzemeler

  • 2 çay kaşığı portakal suyu
  • 1 yumurta akı
  • Yarım çay kaşığı zedeçal

Hazırlanışı ve Uygulanışı

İlk olarak yumurta akı ile portakal suyu bir cam kase içerisinde iyice karıştırılır. Son olarak zerdeçal eklenir ve maske hazır hale getirilir.  Temizlenmiş cildinize parmak uçları ile hafif baskı yarak sürülür. Kuruması için 15 ile 20 dakika kadar bekledikten sonra ılık su ile durulamanız yeterlidir. Maske sonra oluşan cilt kuruluğu gidermek için nemlendirici krem yada badem yağını sürebilirsiniz.  Portakalın içeriğinde bulunan asit ve zerdeçal cilt lekesini çıkarmadaki etkisi ile kesin sonuç almanız mümkün. 3 günde 1 defa uygulamanız yeterlidir.

Bu maske çok akışkan olduğu ve zerdeçal lekesini çıkarma zor olduğundan kesinlikle lavaboda deneyin ve eski bir kıyafet giyin üzerine damlarsa çıkarma çok zor olur.

Yumurta Akı ve Karbonat Maskesi

Cildi yaşıtıran, kirden arındıran, canlı ve parlak görünmesi sağlayan maskelerden biridir. Düzenli olarak yapıldığında cildi ölü hücrelerden arındıran etkisi vardır. Bu maske sivilce ve siyah noktaları yok etmede çok etkilidir. Ünlü oyuncu Aydan Şener bu maskeyi sıklıkla uyguladığını söylemiştir.

Malzemeler

  • 1 adet yumurta akı
  • 1 çay kaşığı karbonat

Hazırlanışı ve Ugulanışı

Yumurta akı ile karbonatı bir kase içerisinde karıştırın ve temiz cildinize sürdükten sonra 10 dakika kadar bekleyin. Haftada 1 defa uygulamanız yeterlidir.

Yumurta Akı İle Gözenek Sıkılaştırma

Genişlemiş gözenekleri sıkılaştırmak ve küçültmek için en sık kullanılan maskelerden biridir. Kolay ve pratik olan bu maskeyi uygulamak için yeterli miktarda yumurta akını yüzünüzün her yerine iyice sürün ve kurumasını bekleyin kuruduktan sonra ılık su ile durulamanız yeterlidir. Haftada 2 defa uygulayabilirsiniz.

Diğer bir yöntem ise 1 adet yumurta akı ile 1 çay kaşığı limon suyunu karıştırın ve yüzünüze sürerek 10 dakika bekleyin. Haftada 2 defa olmak üzere 1 ay boyunca düzenli yaptığınızda gözeneklerin sıkılaştığını ve temizlendiğini göreceksiniz.

Gözenek sıkılaştırmak için yumurta akı maske tarifler arasında bulunan diğer tarifimizde 2 yumurta akına yarım limon suyu ekliyoruz son olarak 1 yemek kaşığı sirke ekledikten sonra iyice karıştırıp göz ve dudak çevresi hariş yüzümüze sürüp 15 dakika bekleyip ılık su ile durulamanız yeterli. Ciltte kuruluk hissi oluşacağından kesinlikle nemlendirici sürmeyi ihmal etmeyin.

Yumurta Akı Kırışıklık Maskesi

Yumurta akı ile kırışıklıkları gidermek yaşlanma etkileri yok etmek için 2 adet yumurta akını köpürene kadar iyice karıştırın hazırladığınız yumurta akını dairesel hareketlerle yüzünüze sürün yarım saat bekledikten sonra olık su ile durulayın.

Yumurta akı kırışıklık maskesi olarak vereceğimiz diğer tarifte 1 adet yumurta akı ile 1 çay kaşı inceltilmiş tuzu iyice karıştırıp hazır hale getirdikten sonra yüz ve boyun bölgesine sürüyoruz. 15 dakika kadar bekleyip ılık su ile durulamanız yeterlidir. Haftada 1 defa uygulanır.

Nemlendirici Yumurta Akı Maskesi

Yumurta akı sadece yağlı cilde sahip kişilere değil cildiniz nemlendirmek isteyenlere çözüm sunmaktadır. Cildi nemlendiren, nem oranını dengeleyen bu maske kuru cildinizin nem oranını dengeleyerek ayrıca yumuşacık ve esnek olmasını sağlayacaktır.

Mazlemeler

  • 1 adet yumurta akı
  • 1 çay kaşığı sade yoğurt
  • 1 Çeyrek avokado

Hazırlanışı ve Uygulanışı

İlk olarak avokadoyu çatal ile iyice ezdikten sonra yoğurt ve yumurta akını ekleyip iyice karıştırıyoruz. Hazırladığınız maskeyi yüzünüze sürüp 15 dakika kadar bekleyin. Ilık su ile duruladıktan sonra nemlendirici krem sürmeniz yeterli. Haftada 1 defa uygulayabilirsiniz.

Suna Dumankaya Yumurta Akı Şeker Maskesi

Güzellik uzamanı Suna Dumankaya katıldığı bir TV programında cilt lekelerini yok etmek için yumurta akı ve şeker maskesi kullanılması gerektiğini söylemiştir.Yumurta akı ve şeker maskesi kullananlar maskenin çok işe yaradığını söylemişlerdir. Peeling etkisi yaparak lekeleri yok eden bu maskenin tarifi ise;

Malzemeler

  • 1 adet yumurta akı
  • 1 tatlı kaşığı limon suyu
  • 1 tatlı kaşığı toz şeker

Hazırlanışı ve Uygulanışı

Bütün malzemeleri bir cam kase içerisinde iyice karıştırın ve temizlenmiş olan lekeleri bölgelere sürün. Sürerken parmak uçlarınız ile hafif baskı yapın. 20 dakika bekledikten sonra ovalayarak çıkarın ve ılık su ile durulayın.

Yumurta Akı Peçete Maskesi

Yumurta akı peçete maskesi sıklıkla uygulana ve çok beğenilen maskelerden biridir. Cildi sıkılaştıran, kırışıklıkları önleyen, cildin yağ oranını dengeleyen, gözenekleri temizleyen ve siyah noktaları yok eden yumurta akı peçete maskesi mutlaka denemeniz gereken maskelerden biridir.

Malzemeler

  • 1 adet yumurta akı
  • İnce kağıt mendil
  • Nemlendirici krem

Hazırlanışı ve Uygulanışı

Yumurtanın beyazını bir cam kase içerisine alın ve parmaklarınız yardımı ile yüzünüzü her yerine iyice sürün. Kağıt mendili dikkatli şekilde yüzünüze koyun gerekirse 2 kat uygulayabilirsiniz. Maskenin kuruduğuna emin olduktan sonra yavaş ve nazik hareketler ile peçeteyi yüzünüzden alın. Ilık su ile duruladıktan sonra nemlendirici sürebilirsiniz. Haftada 2 yada 3 defa uygulayabilirsiniz.

Yumurta Akı ve Kahve Maskesi

Yumurta akı ile kahve maskesi yapıldığında kırışıklıkların görünümü azalır, kan dolaşımı hızlanır. Kırışıklıkları yok etmek görünümü azaltmak için bu etkili maskeyi evde uygulayabilirsiniz.

Malzemeler

  • 1 adet yumurta akı
  • 1 tatlı kaşığı Türk kahvesi

Hazırlanışı ve Uygulanışı

Bir cam kase içerisine malzemeleri katıp iyice karıştırıyoruz. Maskeyi çene, alın ve yüzünüzün tamamına sürün sadece göz çevresi açık kalması yeterlidir. Her cilt tipine uygun olan bu maskeyi 15 dakika kadar yüzünüzde bekletin ve soğuk su ile durulayın. Yumurta akı kahve maskesini haftada 1 defa yapmanız yeterlidir.

Yumurta Akının Cilde Faydaları

Yumurta akının cilde faydaları nelerdir sorusu sıklıkla merak edildiğinden sizlere yumurta kının cilde faydaları hakkında bilgi vermek istiyorum.

  • Yumurta akı gözenekleri sıkılaştırır ve küçültür
  • Yumurta akı maskesi cildi derinlemesine temizler
  • Yumurta akı fazla yağı alır cildin yağ oranını dengeler
  • Yumurta beyazı maskesi sivilceleri önler
  • Yumurta akı siyah noktaları yok eder
  • Yumurta akı maskesi cilt lekelerini yok eder
  • Yumurta akı cildi daha canlı ve parlak gösterir
  • Cildi onarıcı etkisi vardır
  • Kırışıklıkları ve yaşlanma etkilerini yok eder

Yumurta Akı Maskesi Hakkında Merak Edilen Sorular

Sizlere bu bölümde yumurta akı maskesi hakkında merak edilen sorular ve cevaplarını vermek istiyorum. Yumurta akı maskesi kullanalar ve sordukları sorular;

Yumurta akı maskesi kaç günde bir yapılır

Yumurta akı maskesi genelde haftada 2 defa yapılabilir ama içeriğinde limon gibi tahriş edici bitkiler varsa uygulama sıklığı haftada 1 defa olmalıdır.

Yumurta akı maskesi kullanıcı yorumları

Uzun yıllardır kullanılan yumurta akı maskesi eski dönemlerden beri modasını kaybetmeyen etkili bir maskedir. Yumurta akı maskesi kullanalar yaptıkları yorumda sıklıkla bu maskeyi uyguladığını ve asla vazgeçmeyeceği maskelerden biri olduğunu söylemişlerdir. Direk yumurta akını yüzüne sürenlerde bunun etkisi gördüklerini yorum yaparak paylaşmıştır.

Yumurta akı maskesi göz çevresine sürülür mü

Yumurta akı göz çevresine sürülebilir. Göz çevresinde bulunana kırışıklıkların görünümünü azaltmak için yumurta akı ile hzırladığınız maskeleri uygulayabilirsiniz.

Yumurta akı tüylenme yapar mı

Yumurta akı ile yapılan maskeler asla tüylenme yapmaz.

Yumurta akı maskesi kullanan ünlüler

Yumurta akı maskesi kullanan ünlüler arasında Aydan Şener, Gülben Ergen, Tülin Şahin, Ebru Şallı, Oyuncu Burçin Terzioğlu, Vildan Atasever, Hande Yener gibi pek çok ünlünün olduğu bilinmektedir.

Yumurta akı maskesi ne sıklıkla yapılır

Maskenin içeriğinde bulunan maddelerin durumuna göre haftada 1 defa uygulanabilir. Eğer sadece yumurta akını uygulayacaksanız haftada 2 defa uygulayabilirsiniz.

Göz altına yumurta akı maskesi sürülür mü

Göz altı ince bir yapıda olduğu için çok hassastır bu yüzden göz altına kesinlikle sürülmesi tavsiye edilmez.

Yumurta Akı Maskesi Kullananlar

Yumurta akı maskesi kullananlar mutlaka dikkat etmesi gereken bazı hususları bilmelidirler.

  • Yumurta beyazı maskesi sürüldükten sonra kesinlikle iyice temizlenmelidir. Cildi gözeneklerini tıkayabilir. Kesinlikle maske sürdükten sonra bol su ile durulayın
  • Yumurta jel yapıda olduğu için başka bir ürün eklediğinizde karışması zor olacağından kesinlikle iyice karıştırmak gereklidir. Tam karışmadan maskeyi uygulamayın.
  • Yumurtaya alerjinin varsa kesinlikle kullanmayınız
  • Asla açık yaranız varsa yumurta akı maskesini uygulamayın.
  • Maskeyi kullanmadan önce az miktarda bileklerinize süren ve cildinizin vereceği tepkiyi gözlemleyin.
  • Yumurta akı sürüldükten sonra ciltteki yağı aldığı için kesinlikle maskeyi uyguladıktan sonra nemlendirici krem sürün. Eğe kuru cilde uygulanacaksa maske yüzünüzde çok kısa kalmalıdır. Tahrişe neden olabilir.
  • Yumurta akı kurudukça kötü kokar eğer kokudan çok rahatsız oluyorsanız çok az miktarda lavanta yağı yada nane yağı ekleyebilirsiniz.
  • Gözenek sıkılaştırmak, gözenek temizlemek yada siyah noktalar için bu uygulayacaksanız, maskeyi uygulamadan önce yüzünüze buhar banyosu yaparsanız etkisini daha fazla görürsünüz.

Sizlere bu yazımızda yumurta akı maskesi hakkında bilgi vermeye çalıştım. Yumurta akı ile yapılan maskeler arasında seçim yaparken tamamen etkili olan ve olumu sonuç verenleri seçmeye çalıştım. Peki yaz siz hangi maskeyi denediniz yorum kısmına yazarak bizime paylaşabilirsiniz.

www.ciltguzellik.com

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Yumurta Akı Maskesi - Cilt Bakımı

Yumurta akı maskesi, yumurtanın sarısı ve beyazının birbirinden ayrıştırılıp, yumurta akının başka malzemelerle de bir araya getirilmesi ile oluşturulan bir maskedir. Bu maske, cilt için oldukça faydalıdır ve cilt problemlerinin birçoğunu önlemek için kullanılmaktadır. Hazırlanışı kolay olan ve oldukça da hesaplı olan bu maske sayesinde, cildinizde şikayet ettiğiniz birçok sorunu azaltmanız, bazılarını da kökten çözmenin mümkündür.

Yumurta Akı Maskesi Neden Yapılır

Yumurta akı maskesi daha önce de söylediğimiz gibi birçok cilt sorunu için kullanılır. Bu sorunlar arasında ciltte oluşan sivilceler, siyah nokta oluşumları, kırışıklık, gözeneklerin tıkanması problemi, cilt lekelenmeleri, cilt rengini beyazlaştırma isteği, genişleyen gözenek sorunu, cildin nemini kaybetmesi ya da aşırı yağlı olması, cilt parlaklığını kaybetme ve benzeri daha birçok sebep bulunur. Tüm bu sorunların önüne geçebilmenizi ve bazılarının da bir daha oluşmamasını sağlayacak yumurta akı maskeleri bulunmaktadır.

Yumurta Akı Maskesi Nasıl Yapılmalıdır

Yumurta Akı Maskesi Nasıl Yapılır

Sivilceler için yumurta maskesi yapılışı

  • 1 adet yumurta akı
  • 1 çay kaşığı bal
  • 1 çay kaşığı limon suyu

ihtiyacınız olan malzemelerdir. Bu malzemeleri bir kaba koyun ve iyice karışmalarını sağlayın. Oluşturmuş olduğunuz maskeyi yüzünüzün tamamına sürün. Ancak göz ve dudak çevresine uygulama yapmayın. 15 dakikalık bekleme süresinin ardından bol su ile maskeyi cildinizden arındırın. Kurutucu etkisi olan bu maske sonrasında nemlendirici bir ürün kullanmayı unutmayın.

Nemlendirici yumurta akı maskesi yapılışı

  • 1 yumurta akı
  • 1 çay kaşığı sade yoğurt
  • 1 çeyrek avokado

maskenin malzemeleridir. Maskenin yapılışında öncelikle avokadoyu çatalla ezmeniz gerekir. Daha sonra yoğurt ve yumurta akını ilave edin ve karışımı yüzünüze sürün. 15 dakika boyunca maskenin yüzünüzde kalmasını sağlayın. Bekleme süresi sona erince cildinizi bol su ile durulayın. Eğer maske için avokado bulamazsanız, muz da kullanmanız mümkün.

Canlandırıcı yumurta akı maskesi

  • 1 yumurta akı
  • 2-3 damla lavanta
  • 1 adet orta boy elma

Kabukları ile birlikte rondodan geçirmiş olduğunuz 1 adet elmaya yumurta akını ve lavantayı ekleyin. İyice karıştırın ve maske kıvamına getirin. Daha sonra göz çevresi ve dudak etrafı hariç tüm yüzünüze uygulayın. 15 ile 20 dakika arasında bir bekleme süresi yeterli olacaktır. bu süre sonunda yüzünüzü bol su ile durulayın.

Beyazlatıcı yumurta akı maskesi yapılışı

  • 1 yumurta akı
  • 2 çay kaşığı portakal suyu
  • yarın çay kaşığı zerdeçal

malzemeleri iyice karıştırın. Maskeyi yüzünüzde 15 dakika kadar bekletin ve yine bol su ile durulayın. Maskeyi uyguladıktan sonra cildinizde nem kaybı görülebilir. Bunun için de birkaç damla badem yağı ile yüzünüze masaj yapabilirsiniz. Cilt rengini beyazlaştıran bu maske, aynı zamanda cilt üzerinde oluşmuş olan lekelerin giderilmesinde de etkili bir maskedir.

Yumurta Akı Maskesi Hangi Sıklık ile Yapılmalıdır

Yumurta Akı Maskesi

Yumurta akı maskesi çok sık uygulamanız gereken bir maske değildir. Haftada bir ya da en fazla iki kullanım, şikayetçi olduğunuz sorunların önüne geçebilmeniz için yardımcı olacaktır. Her şeyde olduğu gibi yumurta akı maskesinin sık ve aşırı kullanımında da bir takım sorunlarla karşılaşma olasılığınız olacaktır. Bu yüzden düzenli ve dengeli kullanıma dikkat etmeniz gerekir.

Yumurta Akı Maskesi Formülü

  • 1 adet yumurtanın akı
  • Cilt tipinize uygun olan yumurta akı maskelerini hazırlayacak vaktiniz yoksa ya da daha sade bir ürün kullanmak istiyorsanız, bir yumurtayı kırın ve akı ile sarısını güzelce ayırın.
  • Daha önceden temizlemiş olduğunuz cildinize bu yumurta akını sürün ve kuruyuncaya kadar bekleyin.
  • Yumurta akı maskesinin kuruması yaklaşık 20 dakikalık bir süre yeterli olacaktır. Bu bekleme süresinin ardından cildinizi bol ve ılık su ile durulayın.

Yukarıda da belirttiğimiz gibi haftada bir kez bu maskeyi uygulamanız yeterli olacaktır.

www.cilt.net

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